Monday, May 25, 2020
Concept of accountability is an extremely important factor in social work because of various interacting elements which have a significant influence on the overall development processes of the society. The main reason that accountability has a high stake in the social work is that the social workers, work for that vulnerable segment of the society that genuinely needs help. The empowerment of the vulnerable segment of the society, so that they become part of mainstream society and help contribute towards its development. Poor people report that state institutions are often neither responsive nor accountable to the poor and not accountable to anyone or accountable only to the rich and powerful (Narayan et al. 2000, pp. 172 and 177). The social workers have the important function of facilitating the support and resources for the intervention needed to empower the marginalized population so that they can become a fitting partner in the socio-economic development. According to Singh poor people are most reliant on government services and least equipped to hold government officials to account, they have the most to gain from social accountability initiatives (Singh Shah, 2003). Another major reason is that accountability in the actions and policy decisions facilitates better governance that strives to meet the challenges with more sincerity and efficiency. We will write a custom essay sample on Accountability and Social Work Practice or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now It promotes a work culture which is focused and highly result-oriented. When people know that their decisions and actions are under scrutiny, they are more cautious and make concerted efforts to include the interests of the people in all their decisions, which in turn lead to better programs and strategies in the various areas of development in the public welfare issues. The concept of accountability is hugely responsible for the high efficiency and effectiveness of all the development issues that are designed to benefit the public, especially that segment of the society that needs the support and facilitating resources for their social integration in the mainstream society.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Marxist and Psychoanalytic Literary Theories in Action Marxist/Materialist Theory and Psychoanalytic Theory are important theories in understanding individuals and societies. They allow readers to understand how societies and individuals function and their motives. Marxist/Materialist Theory mostly focuses on societies and different classes and the relationships between the two. Psychoanalytic Theory focuses on the characters wants, needs, actions, and process of thought that sometimes correlate with the author. While both have their flaws, they allow readers to explore the deeper meanings in a text as well as connect the readers to their personal lives and societies and fully gain greater understanding and knowledge. Marxist theoryÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Lastly, Marxist theory would be beneficial to western/ historical novels that show the disputes between people who are different socially which is what Marxist theory is meant to discover. Psychoanalytic theory would be help ful in explicating melodramas such as Dracula because they explore the emotions. Freud would also agree that Psychoanalytic theory is helpful in explicating romance novels because Freud main foundation for Psychoanalytic theory is on sex. Psychoanalytic theory is useful in dystopian novels as well and almost any genre when a reader or theorist uses it to understand the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ minds and motives when they, Ã¢â¬Å"[apply] psychoanalytic techniques to texts to uncover the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s hidden motivations repressed desires, and wishesÃ¢â¬ (Bressler 130). Beyond Marxist elements in Anthem, Anthem also demonstrates Psychoanalysis and much of Sigmund Freud beliefs and Psychoanalysis as a whole. Anthem is written in first person but the character Equality 7-2521 uses Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ . The reader later learns that he never uses I because it was a Ã¢â¬Å"forbiddenÃ¢â¬ word in the society and he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even know what it meant until he eventu ally leaves the society at the end of the novel. Equality 7-2521 and the other characters existed under the super ego. Besides Equality Ã¢â¬Å"rebellingÃ¢â¬ and finding himself at the end, all of the other charactersShow MoreRelatedHeart of Darkness Themes Essay1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthematic aspects of the novel by studying the literary criticism theories of historicism, psycho-analytic and Marxist. Historicism is portrayed in the novel through the conquering of the Congo, the racism of the whites and natives and the grove of death. Psychoanalytic theory is present when the doctor meets with Marlow, as Marlow lies throughout the novel and the worries Marlow experiences while searching for Kurtz. Marxist theory is portrayed through the accountant in whiteÃ¢â¬â¢s arrogance, the conditionRead MoreFight Club By Chuck Palahniuk1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmore than that. Fight Club is actually a cleverly written novel that contains many elements of Marxist and psychoanalytic theo ries throughout the storyline. Marxism is based on the concepts of Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s theories that focuses on class relations and social conflict. On the other hand, psychoanalytic criticism stems from Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theories of psychology. The novel is best interpreted from a Marxist point of view because Palahniuk uses Fight Club as a means of expressing his opinion regardingRead MoreThe Drawbacks of Entitlement in What is Poverty? by Theodore Dalrymple839 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe universal truth that feelings of entitlement restrict enlightenment is evident in the essay Ã¢â¬Å"What is Poverty?Ã¢â¬ by Theodore Dalrymple through effective presentation of the Marxist Theory and Psychoanalytical Theory. Firstly, the universal truth that feelings of entitlement restrict enlightenment is displayed by the idea that enlightenment is not given, but it is achieved and discovered. Being given something is not the same as working for it and earning it. When an individual may be given somethingRead MoreThe Feminist Thought Is Old Enough1412 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Feminist thought is old enough to have a history complete with a set of labels: liberals,radical,marxist/socialist, and psychoanalytic ( with the exception of several more). Each school of feminism thatÃ¢â¬â¢s been considered has offered explanations and solutions for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s oppression that are rooted either in societyÃ¢â¬â¢s political and economic structures or in humanbeingsÃ¢â¬â¢ sexual and reproductive relationships, roles, and practices. Liberal feminists claimed that equipping women with the same rightsRead MoreEssay on Patriarchal Structure of An Active Male Gaze 1678 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthough tends to capture movements that afterwards they become edited focusing mostly on the protagonist instead of the screen space. The male protagonist though has the nature of space and he is able to control the stage and create the action. In psychoanalytic terms the female figure has another big issue. The lack of penis, which is a castration threat and may cause unpleasure. So this will take us to the prospective of woman as icon that in this case she is presented to the male gaze which he controlsRead MoreChuck Palahniuks Fight Club1273 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFight Club, investigates inner self deeper and deeper into personality, identity, and temperament as a chapter goes by. Through his writing, Chuck Palahniuk comments on the inner conflicts, the psychoanalysis of narrator and Tyler Durden, and the Marxist impression of classicism. By not giving any name to a narrator, author wants readers to engage in the novel and associate oneself with the storyline of narrator. The primary subject and focus of the novel, Fight Club, is to comment socially on theRead MoreMy Experience As A New College Student Essay1455 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesadaptable, so the transition to dorm life was not as stressful for me as it may have bee n to my peers, which allowed me to focus much more easily on my studies. Looking back on ENG 202, I now know that while I am versatile in taking on different literary theories and remaining consistent, my time management leaves much to be desired. I chose the English major itself due to my passion for languages, as well as my aspiration to teach English as a foreign language. My focus on linguistics, however, results inRead MoreA Theory Based On The Art Of Loving, Albert Rogers, And Maslow1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswas to conceptualize a theory based upon existing ideas to create something unique. My theoretical view is based around the foundation and work of three theorist; Fromm, Rogers, and Maslow. Each individual presented a unique aspect, idea, or theory that was instrumental to the construction of my own. It does not have a working title but I can tell you that it most definitely has a purpose and a set of ideals that I believe will and can improve the lives of many. My theory is based upon three distinctRead MoreEssay about The Introduction of Feminist Criticism1815 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesmovement. In the 1960s, New Feminism concerned with the human rights for black people again came to its climax. This time, it was more pervasive and comprehensive in all fields of society, according feminist literary criticism found its way to critical theories. 2. Feminist Criticism Feminist criticism is a study of works written by female writers, describing womens life or representing womens consciousness. Arlyn Diamond and Lee R Edwards, in the foreword to The Authority o Experience: Essays inRead MoreThe Sociological Perceptions Of Health And Illness1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinvestigation into health has been one of the recurring themes of the discipline. The state of health is very important to all and people spend a lot of money trying to stay healthy. The sociological approaches focus on identifying the two sociological theories. This essay also critically analyzes the biomedical model and discusses how the medical professionals exercise social control and medical professionalÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to ill health. Inequality and injustice in the health sector is has always been
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Together, together, together everyone Together, together, come on lets have some fun Together, were there for each other every time Together, together come on lets do this right Were all in this together Once we know That we are Were all stars And we see that Were all in this together And it shows When we stand Hand in hand Make our dreams come true Friendship, friendship what is friendship? Ã¢â¬Å"Friends in a ship?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"NO!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"FriendsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Would laugh her lungs off when you slipped would shed your tears off when you tripped she would do whatever you askedÃ¢â¬âday and night and she is a friend, with all might Friendship, friendship friends in a ship together we sail shatters in the wayÃ¢â¬âis no avail Friends willÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦cause you believed Im everything I am Ã¢â¬Å"Because you are my friend.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So, that is a friend?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So, what does she do?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Seriously?!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Now let me tell youÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ We sign our cards and letters BFF Youve got a million ways to make me laugh Youre looking out for me, youve got my back So good to have you around Ã¢â¬Å"Eww that is so cheesy!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Shh!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Let me finish itÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ You know the secrets I could never tell And when Im quiet you break through my shell Dont feel the need to do a rebel yell Cause you keep my feet on the ground You dont get angry when I change the plans Somehow you never have a second chance, and Wont say I told you when Im wrong again Im so lucky that Ive found A true friend Youre here till the end You pull me aside when something aint right Talk with me now and into the night Til its alright again True friends will go to the ends of the earth Till they find the things you need Friends hang on through the ups and the downs Cause theyve got someone to believe in Ã¢â¬Å"Now stop!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"AhhÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s continue.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"On what?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"On why do we need a friendÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Because you smile Because you understand just by looking into my eyes Because you finish my sentences and know what I like Because you know me better that I do Because with you IÃ¢â¬â¢m not afraid to be myself Because I can say something stupid and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll still be there Because our memories will be at the top of the shelf Because it will be there, never would go away Its so easy
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Challenges in Global Market for International Marketing. Answer: Introduction This report is discussed about the international experience outside the organization. It is critical for a local company to experience and expand its business in the international market. This report supports the argument that it is critical for the company to expand its business in the global market. To support this statement, arguments will be presented in the report. Basically, international marketing is the function of marketing in more than one country by the companies across the national borders. International marketing is based on the expansion of companys marketing strategy in more than one nation. For entering in the global market, company needs to understand the culture, environment, behavior and attitude of the consumers (Cateora. 2008). It is the most important point to understand by the company that how the product and service will be perceived by the consumers of another country. International marketing is not an easy task as local marketing. Challenges in Global Market There are number of problems faced by the companies while entering into global market. Because of these problems, organizations consider in entering global market as a critical process. There are some points that prove experiencing global marketing are a critical process: Cultural diversity: Ever country is different and the norms and cultures are also different in each country. It is not easy for the local company to launch its product in the international market. Company may find differences in the need, behavior, habits, languages, buying and consumption pattern, preferences of consumers. Social and cultural differences are the real challenges for the companies. Compared to local market, it is a difficult task to understand the behavior of consumers. Marketing strategies like marketing mix, segmentation, product design, distribution pattern, and pricing need more information and practice to understand consumer behavior. Along with this, promoting the product in the global market is also a challenging task because there is difference in the languages in religions in different countries. Thats why company needs to understand culture and social environment of the countries to be success in the global market (Jaideep, n.d.). Tariff barriers: There are certain rules and regulations imposed by the government of foreign country for importing and exporting of goods and products. It includes taxes and duties such as custom duty, antidumping duty etc. International markets sometimes earn more profit from these duties. Sometimes, these duties are imposed to protect the products and goods of foreign countries which restrict the marketing activities in international market. It becomes a big challenge for the local companies who are trying entering in the global market. Along with this, a change in the rates of duties and tariffs for different products creates problems for the marketers. Political environment: There is a big difference in the political environment of every country. System, democracy and directorship are different in all countries. Along with this, every country has different ecosystem such as market economy, mixed economy, command economy and political instability in the environment. These are some real challenges that companies have to face while entering in the global market. Governments in the foreign countries have different rules, policies, philosophies, and priorities (BMS, 2013). Companies need to understand those policies and regulations if they want to be success in global market. They need to adopt and follow those philosophies for the success in the international market. Apart from this, there is a great difference in economic policies of different countries such as fiscal policy, agricultural policy, import policy etc. these policies have direct impact on the international marketing. Companies need to pay attention on political and legal environment while entering in global market. Challenges in ethics and norms: Ethics means the moral principles, norms and standards which impact the behavior of any company and consumers. In different countries, there are different persons following different ethics and morals. It is the most important task for the companies to understand the norms and ethics of the consumers. Consumers have different taste and preferences according to their ethics. There is no certainty of consumers mind. By understanding the behavior of consumer, companies will be able to satisfy the customers (Taylor, 2015). Difference in currency units: There are different currency unit in different countries. This creates problem for the marketers to convert the currency according to different countries because there are fluctuations in the exchange rates. There are also difference in the monitory policy and regulations. It may create a big challenge for the local companies to enter in global market. Production and cost limitations: There is a difference between the cost of labor and production in different countries. The resources and labor are available in the international market but the costs of those resources are very high and different from the local market. It may create a big challenge for the companies because it creates a big difference in the cost and may be unaffordable for the companies. ifference in marketing infrastructure: Every country has different infrastructure and pattern for marketing. It is important to understand the market infrastructure for those companies who are entering in the global market. The availability of marketing facilities and nature of market is different in every country. For example, in one country there is medium of promotion is advertising and in another country this medium may be not so developed. Such type of differences creates challenge for the marketers and they have to adopt new strategies for different countries (Caligiuri Tarique 2012). Distance problem: The matter of distance is creates problems of marketers. It is a real challenge for those products which are fresh and perishable. For making arrangement of exporting and importing for these products becomes a big problem for the companies because it involves time and risk. In such type of product, there is a need of careful segmenting and proper selecting of markets by the companies. Administrative rules and policies: There are administrative policies or bureaucratic rules in every country. These rules sometimes create problems in exporting and importing and make marketing harder for the marketers. Some countries have some complex and lengthy procedures for exporting importing which companies have to face. Terrorism: Terrorism and racism is worldwide problem facing by every country in the world. People in the world live with the fear of terrorists attack which can be happen in anywhere in the world. The terrorism activity is an obstacle in the international trading. Difference in the climate and whether: Due to geographical diversities, there is difference in the climate and whether in different countries. It impacts on the marketing activities of the companies. It is challenging for a company of different whether to do marketing in different climate (Aaker, 2011). Other challenges: Along with these problems and challenges, there are also many other challenges companies can face while entering in the international market such as change in global warming, economic crisis across global, natural changes in climate, difference in whether, difference in marketing methods and standards etc. Conclusion From the above discussion it has been identified that entering in the international market and experiencing the global market outside the organization is a critical task. Company has to face many challenges and problems related to culture, marketing strategies and behavior of consumers. This report has been discussed about the international experience outside the organization. From the analysis it has been concluded that it is critical for a local company to experience and expand its business in the international market. This report has given supports by the points for the argument that it is critical for the company to expand its business in the global market. It can be concluded that if a company wants to be success in the international market, it should do a proper market research to understand the international market. References Cateora, P.R. (2008). International Marketing (13th). NY: Tata McGraw-Hill Education Jaideep, S. (n.d.). Top 9 Problems Faced by International Marketing. Retrieved on 17th September 2016 from https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/marketing/top-9-problems-faced-by-international-marketing/48739/ BMS, (2013). What are the Special Problems in International Marketing. Retrieved on 17th September 2016 from https://www.bms.co.in/what-are-the-special-problems-in-international-marketing/ Taylor, B., (2015). Key challenges facing international market researchers. Retrieved on 17th September 2016 from https://www.languageconnect.net/blog/market-research/key-challenges-facing-international-market-researchers/ Aaker, D., (2011). Five challenges making marketing. Retrieved on 17th September 2016 from https://hbr.org/2011/10/five-challenges-facing-marketi Caligiuri,P. Tarique, I, (2012). Dynamic cross-cultural competencies and global leadership effectiveness. Journal of world business, 47, 612-622.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
Computer Games This Christmas, like millions of other parents, I bought my two children, a boy and a girl, a popular home video game system. I thought they could share it and when asked if this was OK with them, they replied, "Sure mom, that would be great." So, we planned on installing the little goody onto the TV in the family room, so that both kids would have an equal chance to play. So, "What then?" you may be asking is the problem. The problem arose when we went to shop for games for the system. They weren't hard to find. They were in all the local toy stores and Walmart and Kmart too! But, there weren't any for girls! I looked high and low and came up empty handed. Why was this happening? Surely, girls must want to play video games as much as boys do! Why then, aren't game manufacturers producing any video games that feature girls as the main character? On a recent trip to our local Walmart store, I found over two hundred video game titles, yes I counted, for our game system, but of these only two had female main characters. One of them was, you guessed it, Barbie! The other one was a female warrior dressed in a scantily clad leather outfit. I'm pretty sure the latter was designed for young men, and not for young girls. Surely, a big retailer, like Toys-R-Us would have more of a selection. So, off I went on my merry way only to be once again disappointed. Toys-R-Us had over 300 titles in stock for our game system and only the same two titles I found at Walmart were available there with one new addition, which was the Spice Girls CD. It's price had been reduced, so I guessed it was left over from last year when the Spice Girls used to be popular. I ended up purchasing 4 games for my kids to play. I found a few with cartoon characters as lead characters, that I felt would be appropriate for kids. I bought Rugrats, Loony Tunes, Grand Turismo (race cars), and Tetras (puzzle). All, except the puzzle game, had male characters in the lead, but at least these were rated as non-violent. After some careful research, I found that video games are a 7 billion dollar a year industry that out surpasses even the movie industry by 2 billion dollars each year ( 2 ). Mostly, these games are being sold to boys and young men. Girls currently represent only about 20 percent of the market, having been pretty much written off by important manufacturers like, Hasbro, Sony, and Sega ( 3 ). Girls have extensive buying power though, nearly 84 billion dollars annually, and over 6 million of them live in households with gaming systems ( 3 ). From ages, 6 to 10, girls play video games as much and as often as boys in that same age bracket, and one survey reports that if there were more games out there that they enjoyed, 85 percent of girls surveyed would use their gaming systems more ( 1 ). Girls don't seem to like the same kinds of games boys do. Instead of the violent, time-limited games boys go for, the girls like games that offer strong narratives, interaction, and creativity. It's not enough to simply convert or replace existing software for girls; the basic structure should be changed. A 1995 survey in Children's Software Review found only 28 of the 344 games with female characters in leading roles ( 3 ), proof that few producers have created games exclusively for girls. I believe this is largely so, due to the male dominance in the whole computer and technological industry. Males are turning out a product for other males. Then why aren't women out there designing a product girls will enjoy? Some are trying, but I have found it a catch-22 situation. Men are leading the technology industry because they are the ones inviting other males to join their ranks by making only games geared towards boys and young men. Girls are less likely to deem this area as fun and inviting and thus, turn their attention to other areas of study once college bound. Some companies are beginning to look for ways to encourage girls to get more involved in information technology. Girl Tech is one such group, in hopes of reaching 3.4 million Girl Scouts, they are sponsoring a technology merit-badge program (3 ). Efforts like this must
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
The Lanyard by Billy Collins Free Online Research Papers Dictionary.com defines popularity as Ã¢â¬Å"the favor of the general public or of a particular group of peopleÃ¢â¬ . From that definition Billy Collins can be considered immensely popular. He is so popular that colleges are using his poetry as summer assignments to not only stimulate the mind but can also tickle a personÃ¢â¬â¢s funny bone. He is a genius without a doubt but if I were to base his entire popularity based on the poem Ã¢â¬Å"The LanyardÃ¢â¬ , I would say he is a failure. Is the poem clever? Absolutely. In my opinion however, most individuals would not be able to grasp the subtleties that he creates in the poem Ã¢â¬Å"The LanyardÃ¢â¬ . Although I understood his small ironic truths about life like how his mother gave him life and in return he gives her a lanyard, I could not see myself going to see him live or paying to get a copy of his works. Although this may sound harsh, I find Billy CollinÃ¢â¬â¢s humor dry as well as too Ã¢â¬Å"smartyÃ¢â¬ for me to enjoy. Billy Collins reminds me of the actor Woody Allen, someone I simply cannot enjoy listening to or watching. Like Billy Collins, Woody Allen in his play Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Drink the WaterÃ¢â¬ also uses subtle jokes and dry humor that to me simply are Ã¢â¬Å"not funnyÃ¢â¬ . Billy Collins small jabs at lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s quirks can be funny to some but from what I have noticed from the general consensus of students around me, he isnÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬Å"popularÃ¢â¬ in the sense of the definition. The poem Ã¢â¬Å"The LanyardÃ¢â¬ is very clever and it peaked some interest in me but I could not fully grasp all of Mr. CollinÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas. This is how I feel about Billy Collins and the poem Ã¢â¬Å"The LanyardÃ¢â¬ . Research Papers on "The Lanyard" by Billy CollinsMind TravelWhere Wild and West MeetThe Spring and AutumnThe Masque of the Red Death Room meaningsHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeHip-Hop is ArtThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This Nice
Sunday, February 23, 2020
MGT 672 ROLLS ROYCE VS GE - Essay Example It helps in achieving the objectives of organizations as a whole. A strategy refers to the coordinated means by which an organization pursues its goals and objectives (book_study, n.d.) In this context, the strategies of the two leading companies in the aircraft engine industry-GE and Rolls Royce assumes significance. GE is the market leader in aircraft engine sales. It is a highly diversified conglomerate with exposure in business of light bulbs, medical devices, commercial jet engines, home mortgages, broadcasting and self storage facilities. The sale of aircraft engines accounts for less than 10% of its revenues. In contrast, Rolls Royce holds the second position in aircraft engine sales. 74% of its revenue comes from this industry. Therefore, business strategy in the aircraft engine industry is the key for Rolls Royce, while corporate strategy assumes much importance for GE (book_study, n.d., p. 10). This paper aims to study these two companies of the aircraft engine industry and comment on the differences in strategies adopted by them. From the findings of the study, the paper draws conclusions regarding the differences of business strategy and corporate strategy. ... Depending on the position of the resources in the continuum, an organization has to decide on the set of businesses it should operate and other design criteria. General nature of resources gives wide scope of business. Co-ordination is achieved through transfer of resources. Size of corporate office is small and financial control system is adopted. Specialized nature of resources narrows the scope of business. Co-ordination is achieved through sharing of resources. Size of corporate office is large and operating control system is adopted. (Collis, Montgomery, Campbell & Goold, 1999, p. 4-6) Vision & Strategy of Rolls Royce: Rolls Royce is a global company that believes in the principle of sustainable development. The Global Code of Business Ethics of Rolls Royce includes continuous improvement of production facilities, being world class in health, safety and environment management and being socially responsible. Social progress depends on economic development which can be brought abo ut by fresh, dependable and inexpensive energy and transport system. Rolls Royce has strong R & D facilities and record of innovation. It uses these strengths to develop efficient energy and transport system. Through the application of consistent business strategy, Rolls Royce has matured during the previous 2 decades. Ã¢â¬Å"Civil aerospace, Defense aerospace, Marine and energyÃ¢â¬ are the four global markets in which Rolls Royce operates. Of these global markets, civil aerospace accounted for almost 45% of the underlying revenue in the year 2010. (Our consistent strategy, 2011) The core characteristics underlying the strategies of Rolls Royce are as follows: Closeness to customers: Rolls Royce is an organization highly focused on its